10 Solutions to Find IP Address With Phone Number

Welcome to our straightforward guide on how to discover an IP address using a phone number. In our increasingly connected world, understanding the digital footprint that devices leave behind can be crucial for various reasons ranging from security to connectivity. While the task might sound technical, this guide aims to simplify the process, ensuring that even those without any technical background can follow along. We’ll go step-by-step, explaining the tools and methods used to bridge the gap between a phone number and its associated IP address. Let’s embark on this journey of digital discovery together.

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Solution 1: Contact the Network Provider


When you need to find an IP address that is connected to a specific phone number, one theoretically straightforward way is through the person’s mobile carrier or network provider. The network provider has records that link phone numbers to IP addresses since mobile devices regularly connect to the internet through the provider’s network. However, these records are protected to respect customer privacy and comply with data protection laws.

Network providers are typically only permitted to share this information with certain entities under specific circumstances, such as during legal investigations or when required by law. Therefore, if you are just an individual curious about finding an IP address, it’s important to understand that this approach would be inaccessible unless you have the legal authority to request such information.


  1. Identify Legal Grounds: Before proceeding, ensure you have a valid legal reason to request someone’s IP address. This could involve a situation where the IP is crucial for a legal case or an investigation.
  2. Court Order: If you do have legal grounds, the first step is to obtain a court order. You will likely need to work with a lawyer to file a petition explaining why the IP address is necessary for your case.
  3. Contact the Network Provider: Once you have a court order, you can approach the network provider. You will need to provide details of the court order along with the specific phone number whose IP address you are seeking.
  4. Provider’s Process: The network provider will have an internal process to handle such requests. They will verify the authenticity of your court order, ensure it conforms to legal requirements, and then determine whether they can disclose the information.
  5. Wait for a Response: After submitting your request, there will be a period of waiting while the network provider processes the request. The time frame can vary based on the provider’s policies and the complexity of the request.
  6. Receive Information: If your request is successful and all legal protocols are followed, the network provider will provide you with the IP address linked to the phone number.



  • Legally Compliant: This method ensures that any retrieval of IP addresses is in compliance with the law, which protects both the investigator and the privacy of the individual.
  • Accuracy: Network providers have the most accurate and direct information regarding the IP addresses connected to their mobile numbers.

Potential Downsides:

  • Legal Limitations: The need for legal documentation such as a court order makes this option inaccessible for most individuals who are not involved in legal proceedings.
  • Time-Consuming: Obtaining a court order and going through the provider’s processes can be a lengthy procedure.
  • Limited Access: Even with a court order, network providers are governed by strict privacy laws and may only disclose information in specific circumstances.

In conclusion, contacting the network provider to find an IP address linked to a phone number is an approach that mandates legal authority and is tailored to uphold the legal and privacy standards set by authorities and legislatures. This method is not viable for individuals without a substantive and lawful purpose, and even then, it requires following official legal procedures to ensure a legitimate and justified retrieval of data.

Solution 2: Legal Assistance


When trying to obtain someone’s IP address through their phone number, one legitimate pathway is seeking legal assistance. This approach is necessary to ensure that the process abides by the law and respects individual privacy rights. Legal assistance generally means involving the judicial system and law enforcement in situations where there is a legitimate need to obtain this information, usually as part of an investigation. This could be for cases such as harassment, fraud, and other criminal activities.

In this solution, a court order or legal mandate is required to compel a mobile carrier or network provider to release the IP address associated with a phone number. This is because these providers are bound by strict privacy laws which prevent the dissemination of user information without proper authorization.


To ensure the protection of privacy and to follow legal procedures, here are the steps you would typically take within the scope of legal assistance:

  1. Identify a Legitimate Legal Reason: Start by determining if there is a valid, legal reason to obtain the IP address. This must be justifiable, such as being part of an active investigation into criminal activities.
  2. Consult with Legal Counsel: Engage a lawyer to understand the necessary legal procedures and the feasibility of obtaining the desired information.
  3. File a Legal Request: If advised by your lawyer, file a legal request for the information. This often involves the drafting and submission of a subpoena, warrant, or another court order requesting the specific information from the mobile carrier.
  4. Court Review and Approval: A judge will need to review the request to ensure it meets the legal requirements and then might issue the court order if all conditions are satisfied.
  5. Service Supplier Compliance: Present the court order to the network provider or mobile carrier, who will then review the request internally before releasing the information.
  6. Receive and Secure the Information: Once the provider releases the information, ensure that it is securely handled and used strictly within the parameters set by the court.


The benefits of seeking legal assistance to find an IP address from a phone number are primarily rooted in its adherence to the law, which prevents any abuse of individual privacy and ensures the integrity of the process. This method guarantees that the process is used for valid, often serious, situations, providing a high level of accountability and oversight.

The downsides, however, include the complexity and time-consuming nature of legal proceedings. It can also be expensive, as it usually requires the hiring of legal professionals. Additionally, there is no guarantee that the court order will be granted, as there must be a sufficiently serious and legitimate reason to intrude on someone’s privacy in this way. It is also worth noting that this approach is really only viable in the context of a wider investigation or legal procedure, as private individuals will rarely, if ever, find themselves in a position to use this method.

Solution 3: Use of Law Enforcement Channels


In cases where it’s essential to find the IP address associated with a phone number—most commonly as part of a criminal investigation—law enforcement has specialized channels and methods to obtain this information. It’s done through a collaborative approach with mobile network providers and leverages the legal and investigative authority that law enforcement holds. This process is strictly regulated and is meant to ensure public safety and prevent abuse of power. It’s typically used in situations where a crime might have been committed, and the IP address is crucial to finding suspects or understanding the nature of the criminal activity.


Here’s how law enforcement typically goes about retrieving an IP address linked to a phone number:

  1. Legal Justification: Before anything else, law enforcement must establish a clear and legal reason for why the IP address needs to be found. This is typically done in the context of an ongoing investigation, where the IP address is pertinent to the case.
  2. Court Order or Subpoena: Once a legal justification is established, law enforcement agencies can then obtain a court order or subpoena that compels the mobile network provider to hand over the requested information.
  3. Liaison with Mobile Network Providers: With the court order or subpoena in hand, law enforcement officers will liaise directly with the network provider’s legal or compliance team to gain access to the records that link phone numbers to IP addresses.
  4. Data Retrieval: The mobile network provider, upon the legal request, will then search through their records and retrieve the IP address that has been assigned to the specific phone number in question, within the timeframe stipulated by law enforcement.
  5. Analysis and Further Action: After the IP address has been retrieved, it’s up to the law enforcement agency to analyze it within the context of their investigation. This could involve tracing the IP address to a specific location or looking into the online activities associated with that IP address.
  6. Confidentiality and Legal Compliance: Throughout this entire process, confidentiality is paramount. Law enforcement and network providers are both legally obliged to ensure that all personal data is handled in line with relevant data protection laws and regulations.


The benefits of using law enforcement channels to find an IP address linked to a phone number are centered on legality and accuracy. Law enforcement has dedicated processes and the legal authority to access data that regular individuals simply can’t, making sure that the data obtained is relevant and legally admissible in court. Moreover, this method ensures that the rights and privacy of individuals are respected in accordance with the law.

One potential downside is that this method is not available to the general public and is reserved only for serious situations where criminal activities might be involved. It also requires a formal process involving legal justification and approvals, which can be time-consuming. However, it’s important to recognize the balance this method strikes between the needs of law enforcement and the privacy rights of individuals. The sustainability of this approach is reflected in its strict adherence to legal boundaries and ethical standards, making it a crucial tool in the arsenal of law enforcement agencies.

Solution 4: Ask the Individual Directly

One of the most straightforward and lawful methods to obtain an IP address associated with a phone number is by asking the individual directly for consent to access their device or network settings. This solution relies on the cooperative and voluntary participation of the person whose IP address you’re seeking. It is transparent, respects personal privacy, and avoids any legal complications that arise with the other methods listed. The process requires that the individual understands what an IP address is and feels comfortable sharing that information with you.


  1. Communicate with the person whose IP address you need to obtain. Clearly explain why you require their IP address and what it will be used for. This is essential to gain their trust and cooperation.
  2. If the person agrees, guide them through the following steps on their smartphone:
  • For iPhone users:
    a. Go to ‘Settings’.
    b. Navigate to ‘Wi-Fi’ and tap the ‘i’ next to the Wi-Fi network they are connected to.
    c. Their IP address will be visible under the ‘IPV4 ADDRESS’ heading as ‘IP Address’.
  • For Android users (steps might slightly vary depending on the version and device):
    a. Go to ‘Settings’.
    b. Tap on ‘About Phone’ or ‘About Device’ depending on the model.
    c. Choose ‘Status’ or ‘Network’ if prompted.
    d. Look for ‘IP Address’ to find the current IP address of the device.
  1. Instruct them on how to send you the IP address securely. They could do this over a phone call, by sending a text message, or through an encrypted messaging service if privacy is a concern for them.
  2. Ensure the individual understands that they should not share this information with others and that they maintain control over their personal data at all times.

The benefit of this solution is its simplicity, legality, and the fact that it respects the privacy of the individual. Since it’s a direct and consensual method, there are few ethical concerns, and it is free from the complexities of involving legal authorities or technical interventions. The main downside is that it wholly depends on the willingness of the other party to provide you with the information. There’s no guarantee they will agree to your request. Additionally, not everyone is tech-savvy, so guiding someone to find their IP address might require patience and clear communication.

In a nutshell, asking the individual directly is by far the best approach if your need for the IP address is genuine and you can obtain the required consent. Always remember to use the information you acquire responsibly and protect the privacy of the individual involved.

Solution 5: Social Engineering


Social engineering is a term frequently used in the field of cybersecurity to describe the manipulative tactics that individuals use to trick others into revealing confidential information, such as passwords or IP addresses. The general idea is to exploit human psychology and deceit to gain illicit access to information that wouldn’t be voluntarily offered. One common social engineering method is to send a person a link that, once clicked, can reveal their IP address to the sender. It should be emphasized strongly that employing such tactics is against the law and is considered an infringement of privacy. This behavior is also unethical and can have serious legal consequences.

This guide does not provide instructions for engaging in illegal activities but instead aims to educate readers on the risks and realities of such practices. The information here is intended to increase awareness and understanding of what social engineering is and why it should be avoided.


Since we do not encourage or endorse illegal activities, we won’t be providing a step-by-step guide for conducting social engineering to find someone’s IP address. However, for educational purposes, we’ll outline the type of process that might be involved, strictly to inform you of the dangers and the need for vigilance.

  1. Devising a Scheme: The perpetrator would create a situation or pretext meant to build trust or exploit the target’s lack of technical knowledge, convincing them to take certain actions without understanding the security implications.
  2. Crafting a Message: They might then craft a compelling message, often an email or text, designed to coax the target into clicking a link. This message might impersonate a trustworthy entity or individual.
  3. Setting Up IP Logging: A hidden tool or service that logs IP addresses is placed behind the link, primed to record the IP of any device that clicks it.
  4. Trick the Target into Clicking: Once the target clicks the link, their IP address would be captured without their knowledge, as the logging tool records the transaction.
  5. Illicit Access: The perpetrator would then access the logging service and retrieve the IP address associated with the target’s action.


While the steps above outline a theoretical process, they do so only to underscore the malicious nature of social engineering. Engaging in such activities is illegal and can result in harsh penalties under the law. Moreover, social engineering erodes trust in digital communications and can have significant emotional and privacy implications for victims.

The benefits of understanding social engineering lie solely in the power of knowledge — being aware of such tactics can help individuals and organizations protect themselves from becoming victims. On the other hand, attempting to use social engineering for personal gain comes with serious potential downsides, including criminal charges, civil lawsuits, and personal and professional damage to reputation.

If you genuinely need to identify someone’s IP address for legitimate reasons, always seek a legal course of action and consult with legal experts or law enforcement as necessary. Ensure any action you take respects the privacy and legal rights of all individuals involved.

Solution 6: Mobile Traffic Interception

Mobile Traffic Interception is a complex and highly technical method of capturing data transmitted over mobile networks, which includes the internet protocol (IP) addresses associated with mobile devices. This is done using specialized equipment known commonly as ‘Interceptors’ or ‘IMSI-catchers’. The technology is primarily designed for law enforcement and intelligence agencies to monitor and intercept communication for security purposes. Such devices can be very powerful, not only capturing IP addresses but also phone calls, text messages, and other data, typically by mimicking a cell tower and tricking nearby mobile devices into connecting to it.

It is important to understand that unauthorized use of interception technology is illegal in many jurisdictions due to the severe privacy implications and potential for misuse. Accessing someone’s IP address without their consent is a serious invasion of privacy and could result in severe legal repercussions.

Despite these constraints, for the sake of knowledge and understanding the technical aspects, here’s how mobile traffic interception as a concept theoretically works:

  1. Obtain the Necessary Equipment:
    Professional-grade IMSI-catchers or mobile interception devices are often required, which are both expensive and regulated. Legal acquisition would typically be limited to government law enforcement or licensed security professionals.
  2. Setting Up the Equipment:
    The equipment would need to be set up in a strategic location where it can intercept the mobile signals of the targeted device. This requires an understanding of mobile network topology and signal propagation.
  3. Capture Mobile Traffic:
    When the equipment is active, it would impersonate a legitimate mobile network cell tower. Mobile phones, including the target device, connect to it if it is the strongest signal available.
  4. Filter and Identify Traffic:
    Intercepted traffic could be vast; a high level of technical expertise is necessary to filter through data and identify packets that pertain to the targeted phone number. This would typically involve analyzing data streams for identifiable markers or metadata linked to the specific phone number.
  5. Extract the IP Address:
    Once the relevant traffic has been filtered, the associated IP address with the phone number can be isolated. This requires substantial knowledge of internet protocols and mobile network standards.
  6. Terminate the Session:
    After the required information has been obtained, the equipment is usually shut down to minimize the potential disruption to the surrounding mobile network.

The use of mobile traffic interception as a method to find the IP address linked to a phone number is theoretically plausible. However, the benefits of this method are largely overshadowed by significant ethical, legal, and privacy concerns. Such practices are typically reserved for law enforcement in high-stakes scenarios like combating terrorism or serious crime. Not only is the interception of mobile traffic without authorization illegal, which can result in prosecution, but such activities can also disrupt legitimate communications and potentially impair emergency services.

It cannot be overemphasized that while it’s interesting to understand how this technology works, any unauthorized attempt to intercept mobile traffic is a serious crime. Responsible and ethical behavior with regard to others’ privacy should always be a priority.

Solution 7: Check Email Headers


When you receive an email, there’s more to it than just the message you read. Each email comes with a set of data known as headers. These headers contain the routing information about where the email came from, the path it took, and sometimes, the IP address of the sender. However, it’s important to understand that not all emails will include the sender’s personal IP address. Many email services use their own servers’ IP addresses to send emails, so the IP information you find may represent the service’s servers instead of the sender’s device. Nonetheless, checking email headers can sometimes give clues about the general location where an email originated.


  1. Open the Email: Begin by opening the email in your inbox from which you wish to retrieve the sender’s IP address.
  2. Find the Option to View Headers: Depending on your email client (Gmail, Outlook, Yahoo, etc.), the process to view the headers will differ. Look for options such as “Show Original,” “View Message Source,” or “Properties.”
  • For example, in Gmail, you would click on the three vertical dots in the top-right corner of the email, next to the reply button, and select “Show original.”
  1. Locate the Headers Section: Once you’re in the raw data view, look for the headers. Scroll through the text until you see a section labeled “Received: from” followed by an IP address within brackets—for example, [].
  2. Copy the IP Addresses: There may be several “Received: from” lines with different IP addresses. These represent each server the email passed through. The one you’re interested in is usually the last one listed, which should be the originating IP.
  3. Use an IP Lookup Tool: You can copy the IP address and use an online IP lookup tool (just search for “IP lookup” in a search engine) to potentially find out more information about the general location or the internet service provider associated with that IP.
  4. Analyze the Information: Remember that this information might not directly lead you to the person’s physical location or device, but it can offer clues about the email’s journey.


Checking email headers could potentially help you trace the IP address of an email’s sender. This is a relatively straightforward process that anyone with basic technical knowledge can perform. However, as mentioned earlier, due to privacy measures in modern email services, the IP address found in headers often reflects that of the email servers, not the sender’s personal IP, which can be misleading if you’re trying to pinpoint an individual’s specific location.

The benefits of this method include not needing any specialized tools or legal authority—it’s something you can do on your own using your email client. It also does not intrude on anyone’s privacy beyond information that was voluntarily sent to you.

On the downside, this method is largely ineffective for accurately determining a person’s IP address due to the use of email server IPs by services like Gmail, Outlook, or Yahoo. Thus, it might not accomplish the goal if you’re trying to determine the IP address associated with a particular phone number. Always remember to act within legal and ethical boundaries when handling other people’s data.

Solution 8: Monitoring Web Activity


In today’s interconnected world, many activities are completed online, and each of these interactions leaves a digital footprint in the form of web activity logs. When someone hosts a website or server, especially from their phone, this server records various pieces of information about its visitors in what are called log files. Among this data is the IP address from which the visitor is accessing the service.

Monitoring web activity to find an IP address with a phone number is based on the premise that the individual whose IP address you are trying to find is running a server or website directly from their phone or is otherwise directly associated with a web service which logs visitor activity.

This method requires either legal authority, direct access to the server’s logs with the necessary permissions, or voluntary cooperation from the server owner. It’s primarily used by website administrators, cybersecurity professionals, and occasionally by law enforcement officials when they have the appropriate authorization.


  1. Identify the Website or Server: Determine if the individual whose IP address you are trying to find operates a website or a server from their phone.
  2. Gain Access to Server Logs: If you are the owner or have legal and authorized access to the website or server, locate the access logs. This can usually be found in the control panel or directory where server files are stored (e.g., /var/log/apache2 for Apache servers).
  3. Analyze the Logs: Look through the logs for entries that correlate with the phone number you have. Since the logs will not directly display phone numbers, this step assumes you know the times at which the individual accessed their server or website service from their phone.
  4. Find the IP Address: Once you have a log entry that you believe correlates with the individual’s access, look for the recorded IP address. This is the address you’re looking for.
  5. Verify the IP Address: Ensure that the IP address you identify is indeed associated with the phone number in question. This might involve cross-referencing with other data or accessing more detailed logs.
  6. Maintain Privacy and Legal Compliance: While analyzing the logs, make sure to comply with any and all privacy policies, legal requirements, and ethical considerations.


The process of finding an IP address through monitoring web activity is mostly useful in specific scenarios, such as when managing a website or when legal circumstances allow for this sort of monitoring. The benefits of this method include the ability to provide accurate and direct information on IP addresses based on actual server access. However, it has significant downsides, such as requiring specific conditions to be valid (i.e., that the person uses their phone to administer a website or server) and being legally and ethically complex due to privacy concerns. It must be stressed that this solution relies heavily on authorized access to private information and should not be attempted without the necessary permissions and a clear understanding of applicable laws and regulations. Unauthorized use of web activity monitoring can lead to severe legal consequences and violate individual privacy rights.

Solution 9: Mobile Applications


In today’s digital age, mobile apps have become deeply integrated into our daily routines. These applications often require users to connect to the internet, thus utilizing an IP address. For developers and owners of mobile apps, there is the potential to log the IP addresses of devices that interact with their application. However, this must be done with a clear understanding of privacy policies, data protection regulations, and user consent. Under no circumstances should this method be used for nefarious purposes.


  1. Develop or Own a Mobile App:
  • Initially, you would need to have an existing mobile app or the capability to develop one that users can download and use on their mobile devices. This is the primary prerequisite for this solution to be applicable.
  1. Implement a Privacy Policy:
  • Before collecting any data from users, you must draft a clear and comprehensive privacy policy. This policy should inform users of what data you’re collecting, how it will be used, and who will have access to it. Make sure your policy complies with relevant data protection laws such as GDPR, CCPA, or any regional legislation.
  1. User Consent:
  • Upon app installation or first use, prompt users to accept your privacy policy and terms of service, which includes consent to log their IP addresses. Consent should be explicit and informed.
  1. Use Analytics and Data Collection Tools:
  • Employ reliable analytics and data collection tools within your app that are capable of capturing IP addresses. These tools should be implemented so that they execute whenever a user interacts with your app.
  1. Data Logging:
  • When the app connects to the internet, it can automatically log details of the network session, including the IP address. Ensure that this process is secure and that the data is stored safely to prevent unauthorized access.
  1. Comply With Data Protection Regulations:
  • Regularly review and ensure that your data collection and storage practices are in compliance with current data protection regulations to avoid legal issues.
  1. Accessing and Analyzing the Data:
  • With the proper data in hand, access your analytics dashboard or server logs to retrieve the IP address information of the connected devices. This will typically show a list of all IP addresses that have accessed your app within a given timeframe.


Using a mobile app to find the IP address of a phone number can be beneficial in terms of user data analysis and personalizing the user experience. However, there are significant concerns regarding user privacy and legal compliance. Benefits include enhancing app functionality and security, improving user engagement, and offering tailored services. On the downside, misuse of this method can lead to privacy invasion, legal penalties, and a loss of user trust.

This approach is ethically and legally viable only when transparency, user consent, and data protection laws are strictly adhered to. It’s imperative to prioritize the user’s privacy and trust throughout this process to maintain a favorable relationship between the app developers and the users.

Solution 10: Use of Private Investigator Services


Hiring a private investigator (PI) to track an IP address linked to a phone number is an approach often depicted in movies and TV shows, but in reality, it comes with numerous legal and ethical implications. Private investigators are professionals who are licensed to gather information within the boundaries of the law. They sometimes possess the expertise, tools, and methods to assist in locating someone’s digital footprint, which may include IP addresses. However, it’s crucial to understand that they must operate strictly within legal confines and privacy laws, which vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. PIs often work closely with law enforcement or lawyers and hence may have resources to legally obtain information that is not accessible to the general public.


  1. Research Licensed Private Investigators:
    Start by researching reputable and licensed private investigators in your area. Look for professionals with experience in cyber investigations and ensure they have a good track record of ethical behavior.
  2. Initial Consultation:
    Arrange a meeting or a phone call with a potential PI to discuss your case. Be prepared to provide them with all the information they need to assess your situation, including the phone number in question and the reason why you need the associated IP address.
  3. Understand the Legal Constraints:
    During the consultation, the PI should explain what they can and cannot legally do to help you. They will likely highlight the importance of adhering to privacy laws and the conditions under which they might be able to assist you.
  4. Engage the PI:
    If you decide to proceed, you will typically need to sign a contract or agreement outlining the scope of work, fees, and legal boundaries of the investigation. Ensure you understand the terms before signing anything.
  5. Investigation Process:
    The PI will begin their investigation using legal methods. Depending on the case, this could include contacting network providers through official channels, collaborating with law enforcement (if there is a legal precedent), or using their investigation skills to trace digital activities associated with the phone number.
  6. Receive and Review Findings:
    Once the investigation is complete, the PI will provide you with a report of their findings. This report may include the IP address you were looking for, but remember, this is not guaranteed due to legal restrictions.
  7. Aftercare:
    If the investigation uncovers any actionable information, the PI will guide you on the next steps, which could include legal proceedings or other measures, depending on your case.


Hiring a private investigator can benefit those who need to couple traditional investigative techniques with digital investigation, but lack the expertise, resources, or legal authority to do so themselves. Private investigators have the experience to navigate complex situations while staying on the right side of the law. However, the downsides include the cost of their services, the possibility that they may not be able to legally obtain the desired information, and the time it may take to complete the investigation. Always ensure that any actions taken by the PI or yourself are within legal parameters to avoid any infringement on privacy rights or other legal issues.


In conclusion, finding an IP address using a phone number is not a simple task due to privacy laws and the way that Internet and telecommunication systems operate independently. Methods such as tracking through legal authorities, utilizing apps with permission, or engaging with the person via internet communication might be used in certain circumstances. It’s important to respect privacy and legal boundaries when attempting to find this information. Always ensure your intentions are legitimate and that you’re acting within the confines of the law.


  1. Is it legal to find someone’s IP address using their phone number?
    It’s generally legal to find an IP address if you have legitimate reasons and you’re doing so through proper channels like law enforcement or with the individual’s consent. Unauthorized attempts might violate privacy laws.
  2. Can I find an IP address from a phone number through social media?
    Directly, no. However, if the individual uses the same phone number for social media and consents to communicate with you, then indirect methods like IP-logging links (with consent) could potentially capture their IP.
  3. What should I do if I need to find an IP address for security reasons?
    If it’s for security reasons or involves legal concerns, contact your local law enforcement or cybersecurity professionals. They have the authorization and tools to assist in such matters lawfully.
Larry R. Jimenez
I'm the senior editor of I help people solve their computer problems and recommend reliable products. My area of expertise includes electronic or hardware products, Windows, Mac, and application tricks. I'm active in the various online tech communities where he provides help for new computer issues as they are released.

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